Publications 2017-12-01T17:11:13+00:00

Publications List

The FLEC® has been validated and used in research for many years.

Below is a publication list of journal articles, abstracts, poster or oral presentations where the FLEC or CHEMATEC’s other products have been in focus.

If you have anything that can be added to the list, we encourage you to contact CHEMATEC.

Ref. no. Year  Author(s) Title Journal/Publisher
103 2012 Harvey SD, Wahl JH. On-matrix derivatization for dynamic headspace sampling of nonvolatile surface residues. J Chromatogr A. 1256:58-66.
102 2012 Clausen PA, Liu Z, Kofoed-Sørensen V, Little J, Wolkoff P. Influence of temperature on the emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from PVC flooring in the emission cell FLEC. Environ Sci Technol. 446(2):909-15.
101 2011 Schossler P, Schripp T, Salthammer T, Bahadir M. Beyond phthalates: gas phase concentrations and modeled gas/particle distribution of modern plasticizers. Sci. Total Environ. 409(19):4031-8.
100 2011 Kim KW, Lee BH, Kim S, Kim HJ, Yun JH, Yoo SE, Sohn JR. Reduction of VOC emission from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior. Environmental Health. 2010 [E-pub]
99 2010 Bello A, Quinn MM, Perry JP, Milton DK. Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study. Bioresour Technol. 76(9)
98 2010 Kim S, Choi YK, Park KW, Kim JT. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials. Bioresour Technol. 101(16):6562-8.
97 2010 Kim KW, Kim S, Kim HJ, Park JC. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behaviors according to finishing treatment with surface materials using 20 L chamber and FLEC. J Hazard Mater. 15;177(1-3):90-4
96 2009 Ramalho O, Dupont AL,
Egasse C,
Lattuati-Derieux A,
Emission rates of volatile organic compounds from paper e-PreservationScience; e-PS 6
95 2009 Kim, S. Environment-friendly adhesives for surface bonding of wood-based flooring using natural tannin to reduce formaldehyde and TVOC emission. Bioresour Technol. 100(2):744-8.
94 2007 Kim S, Kim JA, An JY, Kim HJ, Kim SD, Park JC. TVOC and formaldehyde emission behaviors from flooring materials bonded with environmental-friendly MF/PVAc hybrid resins. Indoor Air.17(5):404-15.
93 2007 Zhu, Q, Kato, S, Murakami, S, Ito, K, 3D-CFD analysis of diffusion and emission of VOCs in a FLEC cavity. Indoor Air 17(3):178-88.
92 2007 Flemmer MM, Ham JE, and  Wells JR Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system             for investigating surface chemistry reactions Review of Scientific instruments 78, 014101
91 2007 Järnström, H, Saarela, K, Kalliokoski, P, and  Pasanen, AL. Reference values for structure emissions measured on site in new residential buildings in Finland Atmospheric Environment 41 (11):2290-2302
90 2007 Clausen PA, Xu Y, Kofoed-Sørensen V, Little JC, and Wolkoff P. The influence of humidity on the emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring in the emission cell “FLEC” Atmospheric Environment
89 2006 Li, F, Niu, JL. & Zhang, LZ. A physically-based model for prediction of VOCs emissions from paint applied to an absorptive substrate Building and Environment 41 (10): 1317-1325
88 2006 Luo, R, & Niu, JL. Determining diffusion and partition coefficients of VOCs in cement using one FLEC Building and Environment 41 (10): 1317-1325
87 2006 Ham, JE, Flemmer MM, & Wells, JR. FACS: FLEC automation and control system for investigating indoor environment surface chemistry reactions Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society 231:18
86 2006 Madsen, AM, Kruse, P & Schneider, T. Characterization of microbial particle release from biomass and building material surfaces for inhalation exposure risk assessment Annals of Occupational Hygiene 50 (2): 175-187 MAR 2006
85 2005 Wolkoff P, Salthammer, T, & Woolfenden, EA. Emission cells and comparison to small chambers for materials emissions testing Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der luft 65 (3): 93-98
84 2005 Li, F, & Niu, JL. An inverse technique to determine volatile organic compounds diffusion and partition coefficients in dry building material Heat and Mass transfer 41 (9): 834-842 JUL 2005
83 2004 Clausen, PA, Hansen, V, Gunnarsen, L et al. Emission of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from PVC flooring into air and uptake in dust: Emission and sorption experiments in FLEC and CLIMPAQ Environmental Science and Technology 38 (9): 2531-2537
82 2004 Luo, R & Niu, JL. Determination of water vapor diffusion and partition coefficients in cement using one FLEC International Journal of Heat and mass transfer 47 (10-11): 2061-2072
81 2003 Zhang, LZ, & Niu, JL. Effects of substrate parameters on the emissions of volatile organic compounds from wet coating materials Building and Environment 38 (7): 939-946
80 2003 Zhang, LZ, & Niu, JL. Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from painting material in a standard field and laboratory emission cell International Journal of Heat and mass transfer 46 (13): 2415-2423
79 2003 Zhang, LZ, & Niu, JL. Laminar fluid flow and mass transfer in a standard field and laboratory emission cell International Journal of Heat and mass transfer 46 (1): 91-100
78 2003 Yu, CWF, & Crump, DR. Small chamber tests for measurement of VOC emissions from flooring adhesives Indoor and Built Environment 12 (5): 299-310
77 2003 Saarela, K, & Jarnstrom, H. Indoor air quality in new residential buildings and behaviour of materials in structures Indoor and Built Environment 12 (4): 243-247
76 2003 Kildeso, J, Wurtz, H, Nielsen, KF, et al. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials Indoor Air 13 (2): 148-155
75 2003 Afshari, A, Lundgren, B, & Ekberg, LE. Comparison of three small chamber test methods for the measurement of VOC emission rates from paint Indoor Air 13 (2): 156-165
74 2002 Meininghaus, R. & Uhde, E. Diffusion studies of VOC mixtures in a building material Indoor Air 12 (4): 215-222 DEC 2002
73 2001 Woolfenden, E. Optimising analytical performance and extending the application range of thermal desorption for indoor air monitoring Indoor and Built Environment10 (3-4): 222-231
72 2001 Zhu, JP, Cao, XL, & Beauchamp, R. Determination of 2-butoxyethanol emissions from selected consumer products and its application in assessment of inhalation exposure associated with cleaning tasks Environment International 26 (7-8): 589-597
71 2001 Kildeso J, Kruse P
Release of fungi spores into Indoor air [Danish]
Dansk kemi 82:2 p28-30
70 2001 Kleno, JG, Clausen, PA, Weschler, CJ, et al. Determination of ozone removal rates by selected building products using the FLEC emission cell Environmental Science and Technology 35 (12): 2548-2553
69 2000 Hansen, V, Larsen, A, and Wolkoff, P. Nordic round-robin emission testing of a lacquer: consequences of product in-homogeneity In: Seppänenm O. and Säteri, J. (eds.) Healthy Buildings 2000, helsinki, SIY Indoor Air Formation, Vol. 4. pp 99-104
68 2000 Akutsu, T, Kumagai, K, Uchiyama, S and Tanabe, S. Development of measurement device (ADSEC) for aldehyde emission rates using a diffusive sampler. In: Seppänen, O. and Säteri, J. (eds) Healthy Buildings 2000, helsinki, SIY Indoor Air Formation, Vol. 1, pp. 477-482
67 1999 Gustafsson, H. The field and laboratory emission cell – FLEC In: Organic indorr Air Pollutants, edited by Salthammer, T. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 1999, p. 143-152
66 1999 De Bortoli, M,, Kephalopoulos, S, Kircher, S, Schauenburg, H, and Vissers, H. State-of-the-Art in the measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Building Products: Results of an European Interlaboratory Comparison Indoor Air, 9, 103-116
65 1999 Risholm-Sundman, M. Determination of formaldehyde emission with field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) – Recovery and correlation to the chamber method Indoor Air International Journal of Indoor air Quality and climate 9 (4): 268-272
64 1999 Risholm-Sundman, M, & Wallin, N. Comparison of different laboratory methods for determining the formaldehyde emission from three-layer parquet floors Holz Als Roh-und Werkstoff57 (5): 319-324
63 1999 Lundgren, B, Jonsson, B, &    Ek-Olausson, B. Materials emission of chemicals – PVC flooring materials Indoor Air International Journal of Indoor air quality and climate 9 (3): 202-208
62 1999 Meininghaus, R, Salthammer, T, & Knoppel, H. Interaction of volatile organic compounds with indoor materials – a small-scale screening method Atmospheric Environment 33 (15): 2395-2401
61 1999 Hansen, V, Larsen, A, and Wolkoff, P. Round Robin: Chemical Emission Testing by use of FLEC 1390-98, teknologisk Institut, Tåstrup, Denmark
60 1998 Wolkoff, P. Impact of air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air on long-term VOC emissions from building products Atmospheric Environment 32 (14-15): 2659-2668 AUG 1998
59 1998 Risholm-Sundman, M, Lundgren, M, Vestin, E, et al. Emissions of acetic acid and other volatile organic compounds from different species of solid wood Holz Als Roh-und Werkstoff 56 (2): 125-129 MAR 1998
58 1998 Uhde, E, Borgschulte, A, & Salthammer, T. Emissions of acetic acid and other volatile organic compounds from different species of solid wood Holz Als Roh-und Werkstoff 56 (2): 125-129 MAR 1998
57 1997 Clausen, PA, & Wolkoff, P. Evaluation of Automatic Thermal Desorption -Capillary GC for Determination of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) in Indoor Air J. High Resol. Chromatogr.20,
56 1996 Bayer, CW, Hendrey, R, Hart, K, and Mookerjea, S Emission measurement from coating and coating products Indoor Air
55 1996 Wolkoff, P An emission cell for measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted form building materials for indoor use – the field and laboratory emission cell FLEC. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der luft 56: 151-157
54 1996 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. Indoor Climate Labelling of Building Materials: The Experimental Approach for a Prototype  Characterising Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects, ASTM STP 1287, Bruce A. Tichenor, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996, pp. 331-349.
53 1996 Tichenor, BA. Overview of Source/Sink Characterization Methods   Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects, ASTM STP 1287, Bruce A. Tichenor, Ed, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996, pp. 9-19.
52 1996 Roache, NF, Guo, Z, Fortmann, R, & Tischenor, BA. Comparing the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) with Traditional Emissions Testing Chambers   Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects, ASTM STP 1287, Bruce A. Tichenor, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996, pp. 98-111.
51 1996 Wolkoff, P, Jensen, B, Kjær, UD. & Nielsen, PA. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Short-Term Chemical and Comfort Evaluation after Two Days Indoor Air 4 ; 311-336
50 1996 Bornehag, CG. Evaluation of a Method for dealing with Humidity and Odour problems in Concrete Floors Indoor Air 4 ; 325-330
49 1996 Wolkoff, P. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Long-term Chemical Evaluation. The Impact of Air Velocity, Temperature, Humidity, Oxygen, and Batch/Repeatability in the FLEC. Indoor Air 1 ; 579-584
48 1996 Roache, N,, Howard, E, Guo, Z, & Fortmann, R. Observations on Application of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for Latex Paint Emission — Effect of Relative Humidity Indoor Air 2 ; 657-662
47 1996 Tirkkonen, T, Andersen, TE, Saarela, K, Clausen, G, & Knudsen, H. VOC Emission from Selected Materials in Different Chambers Indoor Air 3 : 613-618
46 1996 Salthammer, T, & Fuhrmann, F. Emission of Monoterpenes from Wooden Furniture Indoor Air 3 : 607-612
45 1996 Tähtinen, M, Saarela, K, Tirkkonen, T, , Clausen, G, & Andersen, TE. Time Dependence of TVOC Emission for Selected Materials Indoor Air 3: 591-596
44 1996 Must, A, Measurements with FLEC in situ Indoor Air 3 :119-115
43 1996 Englund, F, Larsen, A, Funch, WL, Saarela, K, & Tirkkonen T. Emissions of VOC from Wooden Floors, Surfaces Treated with Oils and Waxes Indoor Air 3: 89-94
42 1996 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. A new approach for indoor climate labeling of building materials – Emission testing, modeling, and comfort evaluation Atmospheric Environment30 (15): 2679-2689
41 1996 Wolkoff, P. An emission cell for measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted from building materials for indoor use – The field and laboratory emission cell FLEC Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der luft 56 (4): 151-157
40 1996 Jensen, B, Olsen, E, & Wolkoff, P. Toluene in Rotogravure Printed Brochures: High Speed Emission Testing and Comparison with Exposure Data Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg 11: 1055-1063
39 1996 Follin, T. Measuring during Airing out Pollutions from Concrete Slabs Indoor Air 3 : 65-70
38 1996 Gustafsson H. Kemiska emissionsmätninger av material på plats i byggnader. 2:a Nordiaka seminariet om Byggmaterial och luftkvalitet”.Stockholm 1995. Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut, Kemisk Analys. SP-INFO 1996:30
37 1995 Gustafsson H, Jonsson, B, & Lundgren, B. Chemical Emissions from Paints and other Surface Matrials- measurements with Field and Laboratory Emission cell (FLEC) and Other Climate Chambers. In: Emissionen aus beschichtungsstoffen, edited by bagda, E. Esslingen: expert verlag, 1995, p. 95-105
36 1995 Vejrup, KV, & Wolkoff, P. High-speed emission testing of cleaning agents with the FLEC. Part II: Conversion from FLEC to a standard room. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings ’95, Milano, 1995, Vol. 2, page 989-994
35 1995 Vejrup, KV, & Wolkoff, P High-speed emission testing of cleaning agents with the FLEC. Part I: method development Proceedings of Healthy Buildings ’95, Milano, 1995, Vol. 2, page 983-988.
34 1995 Wolkoff, P. The field and laboratory emission cell – a realistic climatic chamber for emission testing? Healthy buildings 95 page 995-1000
33 1995 Ekberg, LE, Gunnarsen, L, Knutti, R, & Haas, J. Identification of air pollution sources in office buildings using the field and laboratory emission cell. Healthy Building 95 page 1353-1358
32 1995 Zellweger, C, Gehrig, R., Hill, M, & Hofer, P. VOC emissions from building materials: Comparison of chamber emission data with concentrations in real rooms Healthy Buildings 95 page 845-850
31 1995 De Bortoli, M, Kefalopoulos, S, Knöppel, H. Second interlaboratory comparison on VOCs emitted by paint in small test chambers Healthy Buildings 95 page 863-868
30 1995 Johnsson, HW. The emission of VOCs from floor constructions Healthy Building 95 page 875-880
29 1995 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. A new approach to label the emission of VOCs from building products. Part 1: The technical background  Healthy Building 95 page 887-892
28 1995 Johnson, L, & Lundgren, B. Emissions from building materials during their using period – A life cycle assessment Healthy buildings 95 page 959-963
27 1995 Jørgensen, RB, Bjørseth, O, & Malvik, B. Emission from wall paints – the influence of the wall material Healthy Buildings ’95 pp. 977-982
26 1995 Wolkoff, P, Clausen PA & Nielsen PA Application of the Field and Laboratory Emission cell (FLEC)- performance study, intercomparison study and case study of damaged linoleum in an office Indoor Air International Journal of Indoor Air quality and climate 5 (3): 196-203
25 1995 Jensen, B, Wolkoff, P, & Wilkins, CK. Characterization of Linoleum. Part 2: Preliminary Odor Evaluation Indoor Air 5: 44-49
24 1995 Jensen, B, Wolkoff, P, Wilkins CK, et al. Characterization of Linoleum. 1. Measurement of Volatile Organic-compounds by use of the Fiels and Laboratory Emission Cell, FLEC Indoor Air International Journal of Indoor Air quality and climate 5 (1): 38-43
23 1995 Jensen, B, Olsen, E, & Wolkoff, P. Toluene in rotogravure printed brochures. High-speed emission testing with the FLEC, and comparison with chamber exposure data. Healthy buildings 95 page 965-970
22 1994 Jensen, B, Wolkoff, P, & Wilkins, CK. Characterization of Linoleum. Part 3: Identification of Oxidative Emission Processes Healthy Building`94 vol 1 ; 243-246
21 1994 Hodgson M., Levin, H, and Wolkoff P. Volatile organic compounds and indoor air  • DISCUSSION Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 94: 2 (2) 296-303
20 1994 Gustafsson, H. and Jonsson, B. The Influence of Damp Concrete on Emission from Flooring materials Healthy Buildings´94
19 1994 Folin, T. Methods to Avoid Odour Problems Healthy Building`94 vol 1 ; 519-524
18 1994 Vejrup, KV, & Wolkoff, P. VOC Emission from some floor cleaning agents. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings ’94, Budapest 1994, Vol. 1, page 247-252
17 1994 Wolkoff, P. The Relevance of Long-term Emission Testing of VOCs from Building Products Healthy Building`94 vol 3 ; 207-212
16 1994 Gunnarsen, L, Nielsen, PA, & Wolkoff, P. Design and Characterization of the CLIMPAQ, Chamber for Laboratory Investigations of Materials, Pollution and Air Quality Indoor Air 4:56-62
15 1994 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. Indoor Climate Labeling of Building Products Chemical Emission Testing, Modeling, and Indoor Relevant Odor Thresholds Healthy Building`94 vol 1 ; 231-236
14 1993 De Bortoli, M, and Colombo, A. Determination of VOCs emitted from indoor materials and products – interlaboratory comparisons of small chamber measurements Luxembourg: Comission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, 1993.
13 1993 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. Indeklimamærkning af byggevarer              Del 2: Faglig og teknisk dokumentation af en prototypeordning Statens Byggeforsknings Institut 1993 : SBI-Rapport 233
12 1993 Nielsen, PA, & Wolkoff, P. Indeklimamærkning af byggevarer              Del 1: Beskrivelse af en prototypeordning Statens Byggeforsknings Institut 1993,SBI-Report 232
11 1993 Wolkoff, P, & Nielsen, PA. Dansk indeklimamærkining af byggevarer. En prototype baseret på kemisk analyse, kombineret med tidslig modellering og sundhedsmæssige kriterier Dansk Kemi 12: 8-14
10 1993 Gunnarsen, L, Nielsen, PA, Nielsen, JB, Wolkoff, P, Knudsen, H, & Thøgersen, K. The Influence of Specific Ventilation Rate on the Emission from Construction Products Indoor Air 2: 501-506
9 1993 Gustafsson, H, & Jonsson, B. Trade Standards for Testing Chemical Emission from Building Materials. Part 1: Measurements of Flooring Materials Indoor Air 2: 437-442
8 1993 Colombo, A, Bortoli, MD, & Tichenor, BA. International Comparison Experiment on the Determination of VOCs Emitted from Indoor Materials Using Small Test Chambers Indoor Air 2: 573-578
7 1993 Wolkoff, P, Clausen, PA, & Nielsen, PA. Application of Field and Laboratory Emission Cell “FLEC” – Recovery Study, Case Study of Damaged Linoleum, and Liquid Wax Indoor Air 2: 543-548
6 1993 Wolkoff, P, Wilkins, CK, Clausen, PA, & Larsen, K. Comparison of Volatile Organic Compounds from Processed Paper and Toners from Office Copiers and Printers: Methods, Emission Rates, and Modeled Concentrations Indoor Air 3:113-123
5 1993 Clausen, PA, Laursen, B, Wolkoff, P, Rasmusen, E, & Nielsen, PA. Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds from a Vinyl Floor Covering  Modeling of Idoor Air Quality and Exposure ASTM STP 1205, Niren L. Nagda, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1993, pp 3-13.
4 1993 Wolkoff, P, Clausen, PA, Nielsen, PA, & Gunnarsen, L. Documentation of Field and laboratory Emission Cell “FLEC”: Identification of Emission Processes from Carpet, Linoleum, Paint, and Sealant by Modeling Indoor Air 3: 291-297
3 1992 Gustafsson, H. Building materials identified as major sources for indoor air pollutants. A critical review of case studies. Swedish council for Building Research, Stockholm 1992. Document D10:1992
2 1991 Wolkoff, P, Clausen, PA, Nielsen, PA, Gustafsson, H, Jonsson, B, & Rasmusen, E. Field and Laboratory Emission Cell: FLEC Indoor Air 1: 160-165
1 1991 Gustafsson,H, & Jonsson, B. Review of small Scale Devices for measuring chemical Emission from Materials Swedish National Testing and Research Institute. Chemical Analysis SP. Report 1991: 25